District Heating and Cooling
District Heating and Cooling (DHC) Networks
29 Country Network Profiles
Network lengths 2000 to 2020
1GDH to 4GDH
DH & DC Equipment Components
Heat Sales in Volume & Value
DH & DC Utility Analysis
Supply Chain Companies
The District Heating and Cooling industry is unique among energy markets in that it is dominated by Russia in size, and led by the Nordics in technology. The DHC market is subject to large variations in local heat prices, currency rates and trends. Devaluations of the rouble, and national CIS and EE currencies have had a huge impact on the global DHC market. Accurate market estimates and forecasts require analysis of each country separately.
This report profiles 29 separate DHC markets with historical data from 1990 and forecasts to 2021, sales volume (TJ) and value ($ and €), capex by country for 2016 and global sales of equipment components from 2016 to 2021 – network pipelines, substations, HIUs, building level heat meters, internal pipework, dwelling unit heat meters and heat cost allocators.
The progression from 1st to 4th generation DH technology is defined and plotted.
The report outlines DH and DC technology; prefabricated insulated pipes, direct/indirect & open/closed systems, one/two/four pipe network systems, hydraulic interface units and heat exchangers, compressor chillers, absorption chillers, regulators, heat consumption measurement devices.
DH STATISTICS AND MARKETS
- DISTRICT HEAT CONSUMPTION AND NETWORK LENGTH, 1990-2020
- DISTRICT HEATING TURNOVER, PRICES AND EXCHANGE RATES, 2016-2021, $ and €
- DISTRICT HEATING CAPEX, 2016
- EQUIPMENT SALES, 2016-2021
- THE FOUR GENERATIONS OF DISTRICT HEATING TECHNOLOGY – 1GDH TO 4GDH
District Heating has evolved through 3 generations of technology and the current networks are a combination of these in each country. DH systems are already evolving into the 4th generation, which combines new DH technology with renewables, distributed generation and two-way supply.
- DH SYSTEM STRUCTURE – OPEN AND CLOSED, DIRECT AND INDIRECT
- DH NETWORK COMPONENTS
- BILLING AND HEAT METERS, MEASUREMENT AND CONSUMPTION ALLOCATION
The structure of network systems, the components and the regulating and billing methods vary by country. Modern consumption metering is fundamental to development, efficiency and capex.
- TECHNOLOGY OF DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEMS
- NATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS
NATIONAL DISTRICT HEAT AND DISTRICT COOLING PROFILES
CIS – Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan
The Russian DH networks are the world’s largest and oldest, accounting for half the world’s heat. With outdated technology, they are in critical need of investment and modernisation.
Nordics – Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Greenland
Western Europe – Austria, France, Germany, Italy, United Kingdom
The Nordics and Germany are trailblazing developments of RE technology and growing networks.
Eastern Europe – Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia
Baltics – Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
The heirs of Soviet DH, some countries are investing and modernising DH, others are stagnating.
A new geothermal DH market developing vigorously for residential and agricultural use.
China, Korea, Japan
China rivals Russia in network size and leads the world in DH growth, drawing on the latest technol-ogy to modernise obsolete and run-down systems and to build new ones. Korea is a relative new-comer, smaller but vigorous. After some years of stagnation, Japan is growing and developing.
UAE, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain
With temperatures of 40o C, GCC demand for District Cooling is expanding.
The first modern user of District Heating, the US networks stagnated for many years and many ceased operation. Some technology is still 1GDH steam, but both DH and DC have found a new lease of life, looked at European best practice and the markets are growing.