Heat Metering Practices in Major Countries
Steam and Hot Water
Heat Meters and Heat Cost Allocators
Installed Base by Country by End-User
Heat Meter Sales by Country in Units & Value, 2016 to 2021
Heat Cost Allocator Sales by Country in Units & Value, 2016 to 2021
Technical Issues, Solutions and Billing Procedures
Heat Meter and Heat Cost Allocator Vendors
- Heat Metering is demanding, with powerful technical obstacles and cost constraints. The report profiles 28 national Heat Metering Markets, Meter Types and Vendors, and technical factors governing each market. Each market has different characteristics.
- Forecasts of Sales of Heat Meters and Heat Cost Allocators in 32 countries, in units and $ value, from 2016 to 2021.
- Sales of Heat Meters and Heat Cost Allocators in 32 countries by end-users, 2016.
- Each country has different Heat Metering plans; e.g. four of the most advanced Heating markets, already launching 4th Generation District Heating technology are diametrically opposed on residential Heat Metering. Denmark and Germany have long had mandatory residential Heat Metering or Cost Allocation, Finland and Sweden have conducted comprehensive studies and their governments have concluded that residential Heat Metering saves little and is not worth the cost.
- Countries employ different technologies for Heating and Metering systems. The use of steam or hot water, single/double pipes, vertical or horizontal internal piping determine what Metering devices can or cannot be used. Sometimes Metering and Heat Cost Allocation are not cost efficient. The report outlines the technologies in each country and what Heat Metering or Cost Allocation are used.
1. HEAT SUPPLY AND CONSUMPTION
Heat can be used for space heating, heating water, cooking, and various industrial processes. Due to the variety of energy sources and end uses, heat can be produced and consumed at many scales, from very small domestic applications at the local level to large‐scale use in industrial processes and District Heating and Cooling networks.
- Industry – with high temperature steam/medium temperature water/chilled water.
- District Heating and Cooling systems (DHC).
- Commercial buildings and Collective stand-alone Central Heated (CH) buildings.
- In small scale units with their own heat source, residential units, with DHC, CH, or own heat.
The Heat Metering and Cost Allocation solutions for these end-users vary.
2. BILLING PRACTICES, HEAT METERING AND TECHNICAL ISSUES
Billing practices range from detailed consumption methods with Heat Meters, cost estimates with Heat Cost Allocators, and calculations without apartment level metering but based on floor area. These are itemised for each of the 28 markets surveyed, with details of the technologies of different meters and their applications – Vortex, Differential Pressure, Magnetic, Ultrasonic. Heat Cost Allocators (HCA).
The vital technical issues are itemised for each country – central group substations, building level substations, apartment level substations – vertical and horizontal internal piping. These issues determine what metering can be employed and where it is not possible. Each country has its own solution.
3. SMART HEAT METERING FOR 4GDH—THE PATH TO THE FUTURE
A review of the development of the 4th Generation (4GDH) of District Heating technology and Smart Heat Metering, and how the Smart Thermal Grid meshes with the Smart Electricity Grid.
4. HEAT METER CONSUMPTION
- Sales forecasts for each of 32 countries in Meter and HCA units and $ value from 2016 to 2021.
- Analysis by end-user group – heat source (CHP/HOB/waste heat), commercial/industrial buildings, apartment buildings, residential units.
Chapters 5 to 12 contain profiles of the Heating Sectors, Heat Metering and Heat Cost Allocation and Billing in each of the listed countries.
5. HEAT METERNG IN THE CIS – Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus.
6. HEAT METERING IN THE BALTIC REPUBLICS – Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.
7. HEAT METERING IN EASTERN EUROPE – Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia.
8. HEAT METERING IN THE NORDICS – Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden.
9. HEAT METERING IN WESTERN EUROPE – Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, United Kingdom.
10. HEAT METERING IN UNITED STATES
11. HEAT METERING IN CHINA
12. HEAT METERING IN KOREA
13. HEAT METER VENDORS – Heat Meter vendors and Metering & Billing services companies are profiled.